Agile Basics

The History of Agile

Well, agile is not a trademarked term, but rather a set of ideas. Therefore, it is hard to place a single name or firm date on its creation. The best way to understand agile’s origin is to piece together the breakthroughs that informed it.

The 1910s-1940s: Lean/Flexible Manufacturing

One of agile’s goals is to improve the speed and quality of value delivery. This was also a goal of scientific management from the early 20th century. Frederick Taylor in 1911 told managers to analyze workers’ suggestions. Then, if they make a marked improvement, managers should adopt them as the new standard. Agile and Taylor both oppose doing a job inefficiently out of habit. Toyota in the 1940s also pioneered lean manufacturing. Visiting America, they were unimpressed by the assembly lines from the likes of Ford. It was only when visiting the supermarket Piggly Wiggly that they found their inspiration. The supermarket had a ‘just in time’ method of replacing items as soon as they are needed. This helped shape Toyota’s low inventory approach to decrease waste. This, combined with their other concepts, has helped shape agile as well as Toyota:

Jidoka – intelligent automation. Machines detect abnormalities and stop until the root cause is solved. Automated testing is now a staple of agile environments.

Andon – a signal or alarm. It orders immediate help, hopefully avoiding stops in the production line. Agile’s flexibility and adaptability all owe a lot to Andon.

Kaizen – continuous improvement. In Toyota’s case, this means stopping the production line when necessary and for all personnel to suggest improvements. This likely proved the value of collaboration and rapid feedback to agile’s pioneers.

The 1950s-1960s: Iterative Development

Incremental/iterative development goes back to the 1950s. Gerald M. Weinberg claimed to have done incremental development in 1957 at IBM. At the same time, Motorola’s Herb Jacobs developed a technique Weinberg calls “indistinguishable from [extreme programming] XP.” These people worked on Project Mercury, the United States’ first human spaceflight programmer. There, they developed software with half-day iterations. Many people think of agile concepts as new when they are part of the earliest and most important software projects.

The 1970s-1990s: Agile Takes Shape

By the 1970s, there still was not a term for this pattern of working. Evolutionary Project Management (Evo) supported early agile concepts. These included early and frequent releases with small incremental improvements. IBM was an early adopter of Evo. The momentum grew and, by 1994, the US Department of Defense explicitly supported Evo and agile standards. Software developers in the 1990s also wanted to break away from waterfall methodologies. They felt burdened by heavy regulations, planning, and micromanagement. This decade produced new methodologies like DSDM, XP, and Scrum.

2001: Manifesto for Agile Software Development

When you search for the term ‘history of agile’, the first results you often see are about the Agile Manifesto. This was written in 2001, years after agile frameworks emerged. The Agile Alliance was the manifesto’s author. Individually, they developed methodologies like Scrum. As the Agile Alliance, they mostly codified the common themes and established some basic principles. By doing so, they popularized the term agile. What could have been a buzzword was now tangible and accessible to newcomers. Since then, agile’s popularity continues to grow. It is now integrated into all areas of project management. AgilePM, an approach that uses DSDM, is built to work with other project frameworks. In 2015, AXELOS released PRINCE2 Agile. Two years later, they went further and made agility a core focus of their 2017 update.

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