Project Management Methodologies

How do you define a Project?

The Top Project Management Methodologies
 
“You mean there’s more than one project management methodology?” There are quite a lot of them and some even combine to form new hybrid approaches. But what are they exactly? How do they help project teams work better? And what makes one methodology better than another?
Here, we look at some of the top project management methodologies,
 
A. The traditional, sequential methodologies
B. The Agile family
C. The change management methodologies
D. The process-based methodologies
E. Other methodologies
F. The PMBOK “method”

A. The Traditional, Sequential Methodologies

Waterfall Project Management Approach

The most widely recognized approach to design out an undertaking is to group the projects that lead to the last deliverable and work on them altogether. This cycle is otherwise called the cascade strategy — the conventional technique for overseeing projects and the one that is least difficult to comprehend. You need to finish one undertaking before the following one starts in an associated grouping of things that amount to the general deliverable. It is an ideal strategy for projects that bring about actual items (structures, PCs), and you can undoubtedly recreate project plans for some time later.

The force of this approach is that each progression is preplanned and spread out in the appropriate arrangement. While this might be the least complex technique to execute at first, any adjustments in partners' requirements or needs will upset the arrangement of undertakings, making it exceptionally hard to oversee. This philosophy dominates consistency however needs adaptability.

Critical Path Method (CPM)

The basic strategy was created during the 1950s, considering the possibility that there are a few errands you cannot begin until you finish the last one. At the point when you string these needy errands together beginning to end, you plot out your basic way.

Recognizing and zeroing in on this basic way permits project administrators to focus on and designate assets to complete the main work and reschedule any lower need undertakings that might be stopping up your group's data transfer capacity. Along these lines, if you need to make changes to the undertaking plan, you can enhance your cooperation interaction without postponing the outcomes.

Critical chain project management (CCPM)

Critical chain project management takes the basic strategy above and beyond. CCPM is a procedure that centers around the assets expected to finish the project's errands by adding asset accessibility to the basic way. It additionally assembles supports of time around these errands in the task's timetable, guaranteeing the undertaking complies with its time constraints.

B. The Agile Family

Agile project management methodologies are growing in popularity, thanks to a highly competitive business environment and increased innovation. In general, Agile methodologies prioritize shorter, iterative cycles and flexibility.

Let us look at some of the most popular Agile frameworks.

Agile project management methodology

The core of the Agile methodology was developed in 2001 with four central values:
  • Individuals and interactions over processes and tools
  • Working software over comprehensive documentation
  • Customer collaboration over contract negotiation
  • Responding to change over following a plan.
The Agile Manifesto of Software Development put forth a groundbreaking mindset on delivering value and collaborating with customers. Today, Agile can refer to these values as well as the frameworks for implementing them, including Scrum, Kanban, extreme programming, and adaptive project framework.

What do these various Agile frameworks have in common?

Project objectives are made clear by the customer (internal or external), while the final deliverable can change as the project progresses. The project team works in iterative cycles, always evaluating results at the end. Depending on the results of these evaluations, the final deliverable may be modified to better answer the customer’s needs. Continuous collaboration is key, both within the project team and with project stakeholders.
restyaboard scrum

Scrum

Scrum is the most popular Agile development framework because it is relatively simple to implement. It also solves many problems that software developers struggled with in the past, such as convoluted development cycles, inflexible project plans, and shifting production schedules.

In Scrum, a small team is led by a Scrum Master whose main job is to clear away all obstacles to working efficiently. The team works in short cycles of two weeks called “sprints,” though the team members meet daily to discuss their work and any roadblocks that need clearing. This methodology allows for rapid development and testing, especially within small teams.

Kanban

Kanban is another framework for implementing Agile based on a team’s capacity. It originated in Toyota’s factories during the 1940s. The departments used a visual system of cards (“Kanban”) to signal that their team was ready for more raw materials and had more capacity to produce.

Today, this visual approach to managing a project is well-suited to work that requires steady output. Project teams create visual representations of their tasks, often using sticky notes and whiteboards (or online Kanban boards), moving the notes or tasks through predetermined stages to see progress as it happens and identify where roadblocks could occur.

kanban

Extreme Programming (XP)

Extreme Programming (XP) is another branch of Agile. XP is a procedure intended to improve programming quality (and straightforwardness) and an advancement group's capacity to adjust to clients' requirements. Like the first Agile recipe, XP includes short work runs, continuous cycles, and steady coordinated effort with partners. Change can occur inside a run. If work has not begun a particular element, it tends to be traded out and supplanted by a comparative errand.

Adaptive Project Framework (APF)

Adaptive Project Framework (APF) developed from the trouble in overseeing most IT projects utilizing customary tasks and the executives’ strategies because of dubious and evolving prerequisites. APF starts with a prerequisite breakdown structure (RBS) to characterize key task objectives dependent on item necessities, capacities, sub-capacities, and highlights. The undertaking continues in iterative stages, and toward the finish of each progression, groups assess past outcomes to improve execution and practices. Partners can likewise change the task's extension toward the beginning of each stage so the group can deliver the most business esteem.

C. The Change Management Methodologies

A few strategies manage to oversee projects, yet with additional attention on changing the executives — particularly getting ready for dangers and assuming responsibility for change when it occurs. Eminent strategies include:

Event chain methodology (ECM)

The fundamental thought behind occasion chain philosophy is that potential dangers regularly lie outside the project's degree. It is fundamental to get ready for these dangers and plan your reaction since sudden occasions will affect your undertaking's timetable, expectations, and possibly its prosperity.

Extreme Project Management (XPM)

Extreme Project Management (XPM) is something contrary to cascade. It offers you an approach to oversee gigantic change and still push ahead to the project finish. In XPM, you can adjust the task plan, spending plan, and surprisingly the last deliverable to fit evolving needs, regardless of how far along the project is. It is a decent alternative when overseeing projects with a short timetable of anyplace from half a month to only days.

D. The Process-based Methodologies

Then, we have the project management techniques that veer into business measure the board (BPM), where each approach centers around filling in as an assortment of cycles. While project executives' perfectionists may contend that these techniques have a place on an alternate rundown, we think these are still acceptable approaches to design and execute an undertaking.

Lean

Lean is an approach centered around smoothing out and removing waste. The initial step is to make a work interaction breakdown to recognize and dispense with bottlenecks and deferrals. The objective is to accomplish more with less — to convey worth to the client utilizing less labor, less cash, and less time.

Six Sigma

Six sigma is an insights-based philosophy trying to improve the nature of interaction by estimating the imperfections or bugs present and disposing of however many as would be prudent. An interaction can accomplish a six-sigma rating if 99.99966% of the result — your task deliverable — is sans deformity.

Lean Six Sigma

Consolidating the moderate methodology of lean ("no waste!") and the quality improvement of six sigma ("zero defects!"), lean six sigma centers around dispensing with squander so that tasks are more proficient, practical, and genuinely answer clients' requirements.

Cycle-based Project Management

Cycle-based project management is an approach adjusting all undertaking targets to an organization's bigger mission and corporate qualities. All undertaking objectives and projects stay vital and should move up to the bigger corporate goals. The means included characterizing the interaction, setting up measurements, estimating techniques, changing objectives when these demonstrate precariousness, arranging upgrades, and carrying out them.

E. Other Methodologies

PRINCE2

PRINCE2 stands for Projects in Controlled Environments. It’s a method for managing projects used by the UK government and characterized by a product-based planning approach. In PRINCE2, a structured project board oversees high-level activities such as setting the business justification and resource allocation. A project manager takes care of the lower level, day-to-day activities like scheduling. This methodology gives teams greater control of resources and the ability to mitigate risk effectively.

PRiSM

PRiSM stands for Projects Integrating Sustainable Methods and aims at managing change while incorporating environmental sustainability into its processes. The goal with PRiSM is to complete tasks while reducing a company’s negative environmental and social impact. It is, quite literally, green project management.

Benefits realization

From conception to execution to delivery and beyond, the benefits realization methodology focuses on whether your deliverables satisfy the benefits the customer expects, and not just whether you delivered it on time or within budget. This methodology ensures that you provide real value to customers and stakeholders.

F. The PMBOK “Method”

While it may be debatable whether this is a true project management methodology, you will find organizations that say they use the project management body of knowledge (PMBOK) method for managing projects.
 
While not an official methodology, this system involves breaking down projects into the five process groups agreed upon by the Project Management Institute (PMI) and documented in the Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK). The five stages include:
  1. Initiating
  2. Planning
  3. Executing
  4. Controlling
  5. Closing
What is inside the PMBOK guide?
 
The PMBOK collects set processes, best practices, terminologies, and guidelines that the project management industry accepts as standards. You will find it documented in the book, A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide), compiled and overseen by the Project Management Institute (PMI).
 
The PMBOK Guide provides project managers with guidelines and best practices, defining everything from the project life cycle to project management strategies and concepts. The PMBOK Guide details the various project management processes that interact and overlap throughout a project’s life cycle.
 
The 10 project management information areas of PMBOK
 
PMBOK authoritatively perceives 47 ordinary project management processes, coordinated into 10 information zones:
 
  • Project communication management: Processes that scatter data among colleagues and outer partners, guaranteeing that information is traded consistently, and more significantly, comprehended by totally concerned.
  • Project cost management: Processes regarding financial plans, subsidizing, spending distribution, and timing. The board is reliant on action gauges from the executives.
  • Project HR the board: Processes including dealing with your undertaking group, such as sourcing, employing, allotting jobs, proficient turn of events, and cultivating solidarity.
  • Project integration management: Processes important to characterize, unite, and arrange the wide range of various cycles and task the executives’ exercises. These cycles are crucial in setting assumptions and keeping correspondence lines open.
  • Project procurement management Processes for arranging, planning, and buying assets — regardless of whether physical or educational — to finish work.
  • Project quality administration: Processes that characterize a project with a good outcome or standards for considering the project complete. The group oversees quality at each phase of the task, from intending to constant execution improvement.
  • Project risk management: Processes associated with planning for and overseeing unforeseen dangers.
  • Project scope the executives: Processes dealing with the extension of boundaries of a task. These cycles guarantee the reach is very much characterized and that all necessities stay inside the breaking point.
  • Project partner management: Processes that distinguish who will be affected by the project and oversee associations with them, remembering techniques for teaming up with partners for project course and execution.
  • Project time management: Processes expected to guarantee the undertaking is finished before the predefined cutoff time.
Choose the Right Project Management Methodology
 
How do you choose the right methodology for your project with so many different options available? You should pick based on the needs of your project and your team. Two tips are relevant here:
 
A. Start with the end in mind
 
Look at your requirements, project goals, and objectives. What does your final deliverable need to look like? What benefits should it provide? Here are some examples:
 
If it is a physical object, such as a building or a household product with very definite materials and stakeholder expectations, it may benefit from a sequential methodology such as a waterfall or critical path.
 
If it is a software product or app that is not set in stone, a flexible Agile methodology may be just what the project needs.
 
If environmental sustainability is a core value of your organization and essential to the delivery of your product, try PRiSM.
 
Process-based methodologies such as lean or lean six sigma support the rapid development of a minimum viable product.
 
B. Assess what is already working
 
Do not forget to look at the processes you already have in place that have proven successful for your team. In what kind of work environment does your team excel?
 
If they thrive on collaboration, incorporating new ideas as they work, and even last-minute pivots due to changing needs, consider methodologies such as Scrum, Kanban, XP, or APF.
 
Or do they prefer an orderly, structured plan that accomplishes tasks sequentially? Then look at methodologies such as waterfall, critical path, and critical chain project management.
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